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Financial redress for survivors of abuse in care

Updated 6 December 2019

Review of the Scottish Government's Advance Payment Scheme for victims of historical childhood abuse in care in Scotland

The findings from a review of the Advance Payment Scheme have now been published. The Scheme provides acknowledgement and recognition, by means of a financial payment and an apology, to those who suffered abuse in care in Scotland before December 2004, and who either have a terminal illness or are age 70 or over.

The review has taken account of the first five months of the operation of the Scheme since it opened on 25 April 2019. It considered a range of issues, including application numbers and scheme performance, the age threshold for eligibility, the application form and guidance, the process of obtaining a written record showing time spent in care, as well as feedback received to date.

The main conclusion of the review is that the age threshold for eligibility to the Scheme should be lowered from age 70 and over, to age 68 and over. This is considered to be consistent with the purpose of the Scheme; a reduction in the age threshold will provide more survivors who may not live long enough to apply to the statutory scheme with the opportunity to receive recognition and acknowledgement now.

The reduction in the age threshold to 68 and over is immediate. Survivors of historical child abuse in care in Scotland who are now eligible are encouraged to apply. The Advance Payment Scheme will be in place until the statutory redress scheme is operational.

The review has also looked at wider aspects of the Scheme, and many of the issues identified are now reflected in updated versions of the application form and guidance which have also been published.

Part of the review also considered the process for obtaining a written record which shows the applicant spent time in care in Scotland. This is a necessary requirement of the Scheme to ensure it is robust and credible. The Scheme Advisers have built up their knowledge of this complex area and developed a network of contacts in the main care providers, across local authorities, and other relevant organisations. Potential applicants who are concerned about this aspect are encouraged to make early contact with the Scheme Advisers who will be able to consider their individual circumstances and offer advice, or signpost them to specialist record search organisations if they prefer.


 Updated 2 September 2019

Scottish Government launch pre-Legislative Consultation on Financial Redress for Historical Child Abuse in Care

The Scottish Government is seeking views on the design of a statutory financial redress scheme for survivors of historical child abuse in care.

This consultation, aimed at individuals and organisations, asks questions about the detailed design of a statutory financial redress scheme for Scotland and wider related issues. The Scottish Government is keen to hear the views from as many as possible, including survivors.

The consultation builds on the findings of an earlier consultation carried out by CELCIS and the InterAction Action Plan Review Group with survivors in 2017, and the views and recommendations from the earlier consultation form the starting point for this consultation. You can scroll down this page to find out more about the consultation in 2017.

This consultation is a necessary part of the pre-legislative process for the Scottish Parliament to consider and approve draft legislation.


Launch of Advance Payments for survivors of abuse in care who are age 70 years or over or are terminally ill.

The Deputy First Minister John Swinney made a statement in Parliament on 25 April 2019 and launched the Advance Payment Scheme for survivors of abuse in care age 70 years or over, and for those who are terminally ill.

The Advance Payment Scheme comes ahead of the planned legislation for a statutory redress scheme for survivors of abuse in care in Scotland, which the Scottish Government intends will pass its final Parliamentary stages before March 2021.

The Scottish Government has put together an information note with details of the statement to the Scottish Parliament, and details of the advanced payment scheme.

Applying for an advanced payment

All the published material, including the application form and guidance, and the FAQ booklet is available on the Scottish Government website.

Who to contact

To request an application pack if you do not need to speak to someone:

Call the automated service free of charge on:

0808 196 1436

If you have any questions or need to speak to someone:

Call the Advance Payment Team at the Scottish Government free of charge on:

0808 169 9740  Monday to Thursday, between 10am and 4pm.


Scottish Government announces financial redress scheme for Scotland

On 23 October 2018, Deputy First Minister John Swinney announced that the Scottish Government accepts the main recommendations from the InterAction Action Plan Review Group on the issue of financial redress/compensation for victims/survivors of abuse in care in Scotland.

On 4 January 2019, Deputy First Minister John Swinney updated the Education and Skills Committee of the Scottish Government, on progress to date.


Background to the consultation and engagement

Thank you to all the victims/survivors who made contact to share their views and who took part in the consultation. The thorough, thoughtful and detailed responses that you provided are what made the consultation reports possible.

Working in partnership with the InterAction Action Plan Review Group, we held a consultation regarding a potential financial compensation/redress scheme for victims/survivors of historical abuse in care in Scotland, who meet the Terms of Reference for the Scottish Child Abuse Inquiry. We did this on behalf of Scottish Government and, on 5 September 2018, the Review Group submitted a series of four reports with a set of recommendations for them to consider in their decision whether to take forward a scheme in Scotland.

The consultation was structured around the following themes, that were informed by drawing on how schemes are structured elsewhere, and then further developed by the Review Group and survivors who were involved in our early design sessions:

  • Eligibility
  • Information required to support applications
  • Choice of support for victim/survivors making an application
  • Administration and decision making
  • Type of payment
  • Approach to determining payment amounts
  • The role of Scottish Government and others

The process

The key focus was a national consultation with victims/survivors. This was open from 4 September 2017 – 17 November 2017. We received 181 responses to the consultation. From the outset, it included victim/survivor representation and used a collaborative approach to the development of the actual process of the consultation and engagement activity, as well as to questionnaire design.

In addition, a review was undertaken of available information on 10 selected financial compensation/redress schemes for victims/survivors of abuse in care that have been implemented around the world. Engagement work was also carried out with residential and foster child care providers and other professional groups. This was intended to gather initial high level views, providing initial insight and a helpful starting point for the Scottish Government should they decide to proceed.  

Reports and recommendations

The Review Group’s recommendations were informed by drawing on key messages from the consultation with victims/survivors and with reference to the international evidence, the engagement with residential and foster care providers and other professional groups as well as the work to date in Scotland in relation to the Action Plan on Justice for Victims of Historic Abuse of Children in Care.  

In summary, the Review Group recommends that the Scottish Government commits to establishing a financial compensation/redress scheme, and agrees to introduce an advanced payment scheme (for ill and elderly survivors) as soon as possible. It is recommended that discussions take place with the Review Group as to how the next steps on detailed scheme design are conducted, including how others will be involved in that process. Furthermore, it is proposed that the other recommendations and key messages drawn from the consultation with victims/survivors and other engagement activities should be taken into account as part of the detailed scheme design. This includes how those responsible can contribute. Finally, that legislation for a statutory financial compensation/redress scheme should be passed before the end of this parliamentary term in March 2021.

The InterAction Action Plan Review Group presented the Deputy First Minister with the following reports in September 2018:

The Review Group’s recommendations are:

Recommendation - A financial compensation/redress scheme for victims/survivors of abuse in care should be established.
Almost all (99 per cent) of victims/survivors who answered this question considered that a financial compensation/redress scheme should be established. The SHRC Framework highlighted that the state has a duty to ensure effective remedies for violations of human rights and this includes the need for a financial compensation mechanism that is open to all victims/survivors of abuse in care. This is not currently being provided in Scotland.  

Recommendation – Approval of a financial compensation/redress scheme for victims/survivors of abuse in care should take place as soon as possible following detailed scheme design.
The Review Group urges the Scottish Government to approve a financial compensation/redress scheme for victims/survivors of abuse in care as soon as possible, following detailed scheme design, and for legislation to be passed by the end of this parliamentary term, March 2021.

Recommendation - The preferred approach to financial compensation/redress is a combination payment.
The majority of victims/survivors who answered this question felt that the preferred approach is a combination payment which involves a flat-rate standard payment along with an individual experience payment which takes account of a range of factors such as: the nature of abuse; the severity of abuse; the period of abuse; and the life-long consequences of the abuse. The operational design and detail will need further consideration.  

Recommendation - Next-of-kin of deceased victims/survivors of historic abuse should be eligible to apply to a scheme.
The majority of victims/survivors who answered this question indicate support that the next-of-kin of deceased victims/survivors should be eligible for compensation/redress. However, there were a number of cautions about the eligibility of next-of-kin, in terms of the definition of next-of-kin, personal relationships with the deceased victims/survivors while they were living, and practical operational issues. These matters require further consideration.

Recommendation – There should be arrangements for interim payments which would allow priority groups of victims/survivors to access payments prior to full payment.
It was considered by the majority of victims/survivors who answered this question that it is important for priority groups of victims/survivors to access interim payments. There was a range of views regarding the criteria for these payments, in general, age and health factors were highlighted as priorities. Such interim payments should be considered in the context of further discussions about ‘advanced payments’ (see below).

Recommendation - A range of written and verbal information, where available, should be used to assess individual applications.
Victims/survivors who answered this question considered that, where available, a range of written and verbal information should be used to assess applications, and this included: information about placement details; nature and severity of abuse experienced; information on impact of the abuse; testimony from a third party; police records of alleged or convicted perpetrators of abuse; previous or ongoing civil/criminal action; and, material prepared for another purpose. Challenges in the availability and securing of information, the impact on individuals through the process and the importance of choice were also noted.

Recommendation – A range of support and guidance should be put in place for applicants to assist them through the process of the scheme.
Most victims/survivors who answered this question outlined a number of potential different types of supports to meet a range of individual and different needs at each stage through the application and payment process. These included: practical support, emotional support, financial advice, legal advice and advocacy.

Recommendation - Victims/survivors should be represented in the administration and governance of a full financial compensation/redress scheme.
The value and insight offered by victim/survivor representation was highlighted by the consultation participants. Similar to the types of support, victims/survivors suggested a broad range of ways by which victim/survivors could be represented, either through the development and administration of the scheme or the individual application process. These views accord with a human rights based approach where participation is a recognised key component. Representation and participation should be significant and meaningful, involving appropriate information available in accessible formats, and the provision of necessary support and guidance.

Recommendation - A range of knowledge and understanding should be represented in any panel or board which will have a decision making role in the scheme.
Victims/survivors who answered this question noted a number of suggested professional backgrounds and specified services, and highlighted the value of lived experience. Key areas of knowledge and understanding included: advocacy, finance, health, human rights law, social care, and trauma.

Recommendation - All those responsible should contribute to a financial compensation/redress scheme.
Victims/survivors who answered this question consider that all those responsible should contribute, including: Scottish Government, residential and foster care providers, local authorities which placed children in care and those which provided care placements, and religious bodies responsible for care services. The SHRC Framework also makes clear that institutions should contribute to reparation packages in a manner proportionate to the extent to which they are accountable.  

Recommendation - Scheme design should take account of a number of key principles to ensure the integrity and effectiveness of a scheme.
Victims/survivors who answered this question noted that the scheme will need to address important principles of choice, fairness, respect, integrity and individual experience, needs and wishes. The integrity of the scheme is crucial and it must be robust and credible; the evidence required, and the scrutiny of it, must create a balance which will deter fraudulent claims, without putting off applicants or refusing genuine applications because of lack of evidence.

Recommendation - It is essential that any potential negative consequences are considered during scheme design.
The risk of any negative consequences for individual victims/survivors was highlighted by consultation participants. It is important to consider how these could be prevented and where this not possible, mitigated. This would include considering how any payment may impact on personal vulnerabilities as well as benefits, pension, or any previous payments such as criminal injuries compensation payments.

Recommendation – The Scottish Government should discuss next steps with the Review Group and other victims/survivors, particularly the process to take forward detailed scheme design and implementation.
The consultation with victims/survivors identified a number of issues where there was a high level of consensus, as well as areas where views were more mixed. There were a number of matters which will require further work to ensure any implemented scheme is appropriate to Scotland and Scotland’s victims/survivors of historic abuse in care. These should be taken forward in discussion with the Review Group and other victims/survivors.

Advance payment scheme

Alongside the consultation and consideration of ‘interim payments’, specific discussions took place concerning the status of pre-1964 victims/survivors and all the following recommendation was made in regard to an advance payment scheme.

Recommendation – An ‘advanced payment scheme’ for the elderly and ill should be progressed as soon as possible and before the main financial compensation/redress scheme is established in statute.
It was agreed in this recommendation, published on 6 September 2018, that the Review Group would, at a later date, forward on information to the Deputy First Minister in relation to advance payments for the elderly and ill. That detail is now outlined in a letter sent to the Deputy First Minister on 2 October 2018.


The Background

On 17 November 2016, the Deputy First Minister, John Swinney, acknowledged that, while elements of reparation were in place in Scotland, it was time to explore the specific matter of financial compensation/redress for abuse in care in Scotland, and announced that there should be a process of consultation and engagement.

In January 2017, CELCIS was commissioned by the Scottish Government to work in partnership with the SHRC InterAction Action Plan Review Group and to take forward a consultation and engagement exercise on a potential financial compensation/redress scheme for individuals who experienced abuse in care in Scotland, as defined by the terms of reference of the Scottish Child Abuse Inquiry (SCAI).

The InterAction Action Plan Review Group is a national stakeholder group. It includes representation from survivors, survivor support organisations, residential child care service providers, the Scottish Human Rights Commission (SHRC), the Scottish Government, CELCIS, Educating through care Scotland (EtCS) and Social Work Scotland. The Group monitors the implementation of the Action Plan on Justice for victims of historic abuse of children in care.

CELCIS has worked alongside a number of partners, including survivors and survivor organisations in this area for many years. This work has included involvement in key activities such as the InterAction process that led to the development of the SHRC Action Plan on Justice for Victims of Historic Child Abuse, the consultation on the Public Inquiry into Historical Child Abuse in Scotland and other Scottish Government Commitments to survivors of historical child abuse in care.


What is meant by 'redress'?

Redress is to set right or remedy, a wrong or harm. Redress and remedy in the context of historical abuse can take a range of forms such as apology, provision of services such as counselling or health services, or a monetary/financial payment.

Reparation is to make amends for a wrong one has done, by providing payment or other assistance to those who have been wronged.

Monetary or financial redress Monetary or financial redress is a payment under redress that provides a tangible recognition of the seriousness of the hurt and injury suffered by a survivor. To avoid any confusion, the term financial redress is the term agreed by the Scottish Government and is described as “a tangible recognition of the harm done” (Deputy First Minister, Statement to Scottish Parliament, February 2017).


An update from the Deputy First Minister

Deputy First Minister, John Swinney sent letters to the Education and Skills Committee at Scottish Parliament to update them on progress so far on the financial redress consultation and engagement.


Immediate help

If you become upset and you need immediate help, please contact one of the following support services:

Breathing Space
Breathing Space is a free, confidential phone and web based service for people in Scotland.
Helpline: 0800 83 85 87
Monday to Friday: 6pm – 2am
Friday to Monday: 6pm – 6am

Samaritans
Samaritans offers support round the clock.
Helpline: 116 123 (United Kingdom)
116 123 (Republic of Ireland)
(24 hours a day, 365 days a year)
jo@samaritans.org
(United Kingdom)
jo@samaritans.ie
(Republic of Ireland)

updated 3 December 2019

Review of the Advance Payment Scheme for victims of historical childhood abuse in care in Scotland 

A review of the Advance Payment Scheme has concluded and the findings published today £ December 2019). The Scheme provides acknowledgement and recognition, by means of a financial payment and an apology, to those who suffered abuse in care in Scotland before December 2004, and who either have a terminal illness or are age 70 or over.

The review has taken account of the first five months of the operation of the Scheme since it opened on 25 April 2019. It considered a range of issues, including application numbers and scheme performance, the age threshold for eligibility, the application form and guidance, the process of obtaining a written record showing time spent in care, as well as feedback received to date. The review paper is available at https://www.gov.scot/isbn/9781839603914/.

The main conclusion of the review is that the age threshold for eligibility to the Scheme should be lowered from age 70 and over to age 68 and over. This is considered to be consistent with the purpose of the Scheme; a reduction in the age threshold will provide more survivors who may not live long enough to apply to the statutory scheme with the opportunity to receive recognition and acknowledgement now. We know from feedback how meaningful that can be for some individuals.

The reduction in the age threshold to 68 and over will have immediate effect. Survivors of historical child abuse in care in Scotland who are now eligible are encouraged to apply. There will be no further review to the age threshold. The intention is that the Advance Payment Scheme will cease to exist once the statutory redress scheme is operational.

The review has also looked at wider aspects of the Scheme, and many of the issues identified are now reflected in updated versions of the application form and guidance which have also been published today and can be found at https://www.gov.scot/publications/financial-redress-for-survivors-of-child-abuse-in-care-advance-payment-scheme/.

Part of the review also considered the process for obtaining a written record which shows the applicant spent time in care in Scotland. This is a necessary requirement of the Scheme to ensure it is robust and credible. The Scheme Advisers have built up their knowledge of this complex area and developed a network of contacts in the main care providers, across local authorities, and other relevant organisations. Potential applicants who are concerned about this aspect are encouraged to make early contact with the Scheme Advisers who will be able to consider their individual circumstances and offer advice, or signpost them to specialist record search organisations if they prefer.

Contact us

University of Strathclyde, Curran Building, Level 6
94 Cathedral St, Glasgow G4 0LG
0141 444 8500
celcis@strath.ac.uk

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